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Czech Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Czech uses personal pronouns less often than some other languages, including English, French, or German, because pronouns are not required to determine the gender in the sentence. The Czech language uses other means to do that, like endings, prefixes, and other modifications of the verb that is used in the sentence - see overview). Personal pronouns are often used for emphasis (e.g. "Napsal jsem to já, ne ty" - "I wrote that, not you").

Singular (one person/animal/object)

já - I
ty - you
on - he (person/animal/object in masculine gender)
        "Pavel/On je doma" - "Paul/He is at home"
        "Pes/On je venku" - "The dog/It is outside"
        "Hrad/On stojí na kopci" - "The castle/It stands on a hill"
ona - she (person/animal/object in feminine gender)
        "Monika/Ona je hezká" - "Monica/She is pretty"
        "Kráva/Ona se pase" - "The cow/It is grazing"
        "Zahrada/Ona je za domem" - "The garden/It is behind the house"
ono - it (person/animal/object in neuter gender)
        "Dítě/Ono si hraje" - "The child/He/She is playing" (plural is "ony", not "ona"!)
        "Kotě/Ono si hraje" - "The kitten/It is playing"
        "Auto/Ono je bílé." - "The car/It is white"

Plural (more than one person/animal/object)

my - we
vy - you
oni - they (persons/animals/objects in masculine gender)
        "Chlapci jsou doma" - "The boys/They are at home"
        "Psi/Oni jsou venku" - "The dogs/They are outside"
        "Hrady/Oni stojí na kopcích" - "The castles/They stand on hills"
ony - they (persons/animals/objects in feminine gender)
        "Dívky/Ony jsou doma" - "The girls/They are at home"
        "Krávy/Ony se pasou" - "The cows/They are grazing"
        "Knihy/Ony jsou staré" - "The books/They are old"
ona - they (persons/animals/objects in neuter gender)
        "Koťata/Ona si hrají" - "The kittens/They are playing"
        "Auta/Ona jsou bílá" - "The cars/They are white"

Demonstrative pronouns

Czech uses demonstrative pronouns to emphasize or point out the particular noun (much like the English "this", "that", "these", "those", but also the definite article "the"). The form of the Czech pronouns changes with grammatical cases.

Singular (one person/animal/object)

masculine: "ten" - the/that, "tento" - this
                    e.g. "ten hrad" - "the/that castle", "tento hrad" - "this castle"
feminine: "ta" - the/that, "tato" - this
                 e.g. "ta kniha" - "the/that book", "tato kniha" - "this book"
neuter: "to" - the/that, "toto" - this
             e.g. "to auto" - "the/that car", "toto auto" - "this car"

Plural (more than one person/animal/object)

masculine: "ti/ty" - the, those, "tito/tyto" - these
                    e.g. "ti psi" - "the/those dogs", "ty hrady" - "the/those castles"
                           "tito psi" - "these dogs", "tyto hrady" - "these castles"
feminine: "ty" - the/those, "tyto" - these
                 e.g. "ty knihy" - "the/those books", "tyto knihy" - "these books"
neuter: "ta" - the/those, "tato" - these
             "ta auta" - "the/those cars", "tato auta" - "these cars"

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns express the possession of a particular object (the English "my", "mine", "your", "yours", etc.).

Singular (one person/animal/object)

"můj" (for masculine nouns), "moje" (for feminine and neuter nouns) - my, mine
     e.g. "můj pes" - "my dog", "moje kniha/auto" - "my book/car"
            "Tento pes je můj." - "This dog is mine."
            "Ta kniha je moje." - "The/That book is mine."
            "Toto auto je moje." - "This car is mine."
"tvůj" (for masculine nouns), "tvoje" (for feminine and neuter nouns) - your, yours (belonging to one person)
     examples - same as "můj"
"jeho" - his
     e.g. "jeho pes/kniha/auto" - "his dog/book/car"
"její" - her, hers
     e.g. "její pes/kniha/auto" - "her dog/book/car"
            "Ten pes je její." - "The/That dog is hers."
            "Tato kniha je její." - "This book is hers."
"jeho" - its
     e.g. "jeho poloha" - "its location"

Plural (more than one person/animal/object)

"náš" (for masculine nouns), "naše" (for feminine and neuter nouns) - our, ours
     examples - same as "můj"
"váš" (for masculine nouns), "vaše" (for feminine and neuter nouns) - your, yours (belonging to more than one person)
     examples - same as "můj"
"jejich" - their, theirs
     e.g. "jejich pes/kniha/auto" - "their dog/book/car"
            "Ten pes je jejich." - "The/That dog is theirs."
            "Tato kniha je jejich." - "This book is theirs."

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